Geographical and Physical Features

The district lies at the edge of the Malwa Plateau, an area of low hills and shallow plains. However, in places sharp geophysical disturbances in ages long past have thrown up hills which are in reality an extension of Vindhyachal range. As a result, the district falls in the following physical divisions:

The Mukandara range which enters the district from the south-east, two ridges passing close to Jhalrapatan and continuing north-west towards former the boundary of Khanpur with Chhipabarod tehsil of Baran district.

The hills of Dag, extendingup to Pirawa

The plateau region with low rounded hills covering most of the southern half of the district

The central plain of Pachpahar and Jhalrapatan, extending upto the village of Aklera and Manoharthana across the ridges

The plain of Khanpur is between two arms of the Mukandara. The Mukandara hills which take their name from famous pass in Kota district and was the scene of Col. Monson's defeat by Holkar in 1804, enter the district at the border of tehsil Aklera and former Bakani tehsil and proceeding northwards, bifurcate at the northern boundary of Aklera, the main range going north west-wars pass Jhalrapatan branch north-wards into Chippabarod of Baran district. Another smaller bunch runs parallel to the main range and south of it, forming the boundary between Asnawar and Bakani. The hills of Dag reach their highest point near the village of Tankra in the extreme south of the tehsil.

The whole of south Jhalawar has the characteristics of the Malwa Plateau, an area of rounded bare hills interspersed by plains. The Jhalawar plain stretches in a wide belt from Bhawani Mandi in the west almost up to Asnawar in the east and is bounded on the northern, eastern and southern sides by the Mukandara hills. This is fertile, well-watered region crossed by the Ahu and Kalisindh rivers and a number of lesser streams. The rivers and streams of the district belong to the Chambal river system. Except in Gangdhar tehsil, the general flow is from south to north. For the sake of convenience, the rivers of Jhalawar may be divided into two groups -- the western group and the eastern group. The western rivers are Ahu Piplaj, Kyasri, Kantali, Rawa, Kalisindh and Chandrabhaga. The eastern rivers are Parwan, Andheri, Newaj, Ghar and Ujar. There are artificial lakes Kadila and Mansarovar. Generally speaking, the Jhalawar rivers have deep beds with the result that water level is below that of the surrounding countryside and hence canals cannot be dug for irrigation.


In an average the climate is fairly dry and healthy. The year may be divided into four seasons -- the hot season from March to middle of the June, the monsoon season from mid-June to September, post monsoon season from October to November and the cold season from December to February. The western portion of the district gets fewer rains than the eastern portion. The south-west monsoon advances into the area in the latter half of the June and as much as 93 percent of the annual rainfall is recorded during the season.

Geology and Minerals

Jhalrapatan stands on Vindhyan strats at the northern edge of the great spread of basaltic rocks known as Deccan trap formation, the northern area of which is also called the Malwa trap. These Vindhyan starts below to the upper division in the geological survey classification of the Indian rock system. The beds around Jhalrapatan are considered as belonging to the Rewa or middle group of them, and consist of sand-stones and shells with a band of lime stone. Over the greater part of the Vindhyan area, the strata are quite undisturbed and their habit is to weather into scarped plateaus or ridges, having one face steep and the other sloping. These are capped by sandstone, the low ground being eroded out of the shells. There are many varieties of the basaltic rocks hard, amorphous and soft. There are vast deposits of sandstone lying in an area of eight square miles in horizontal strata near about Jhalrapatan and Jhalawar, in the tehsil of Gangdhar, Dag, Pachpahar and Pirawa, there are no quarries as are found in the north of the district. Instead of sandstone, black rocks of volcanic origin called Kala Tal are used as building material. Superimposed on the black rock in many places are layers of soft stones are also used for building purposes. Apart from sand stones near Jhalawar the main deposits are laterite, copper, calcite, cheledoney of agate and kankar. The laterite is found at Sarod in tehsil Pachpahar, limestone for building purposes at Mangrol in Jhalrapatan tehsil, and limestone at Jhakadiya and Chhatrapura in Pirawa and Pachpahar tehsils. Sandstone is found in the whole of the district.




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General Information
Area 6219 sq. kms.
Climate Mean Max.               Mean Min.
Summer 42.0 deg. C           27.0 deg. C
Winter 25.0 deg. C            9.5 deg. C
Rainfall 60-95 cms.